The Creeping thistle is our most common species of thistle and can be found on disturbed and cultivated ground, such as rough grassland, roadside verges and field edges from June to October. A polymorphic species[17]. Seed production per plant may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds. Other Uses:Thistle down can be used as tinder to start camp or woodstove fires in woodstove. Creeping thistle foliage is used as a food by over 20 species of Lepidoptera, including the painted lady butterfly and the engrailed moth, and several species of aphids. Stamens 5. A paste of the roots, combined with an equal quantity of the root paste of Amaranthus spinosus, is used in the treatment of indigestion. Sure, it has attractive purple blooms, but don’t be fooled. The stem is winged and spiked. Flowerheads are pale lilac in colour and up to 2cm across. Canada Thistle produces flowers from about June until August. Uses and Values: Plumeless thistle is an important plant for bu ©er-flies. Canada thistle (note that it's NOT 'Canadian' thistle) is in the family Asteraceae. History American Indians used a tea made from the roots of Canada thistle as a tonic for the intestines and as a treatment for worms (Foster & Duke 1990) Current Medicinal Uses Each can produce between 1,500 … Leaves. Stems are smooth and spineless. These can be used in similar ways to the petioles, or you can stuff them, roast them, and braise them. Involucre elliptic, involucral bracts erect, tips with short spines, slightly woolly, often purplish. Compositae---Synonym---Way Thistle.---Parts Used---Root, leaves.Carduus arvensis, the Creeping Plurne Thistle, or Way Thistle, has many varieties.It is found in cultivated fields and waste places, and is … ________________________________________________________. The average number of seeds per flower head is around 100 but there can be up to 340. Rhizomatous, forms stands. Plants of this genus were used as an herbal remedy to relax swollen veins. In order to move more stealthily under the cover of darkness the Norsemen took off their shoes, but as they crept barefoot they came across an area of ground covered in thistles and one of Haakon’s men unfortunately stood on one and shrieked out in pain, thus alerting the Clansmen to the advancing Norsemen. A widespread and common thistle, the Spear Thistle has the classic thistle appearance – purple, fluffy-looking flowers sitting atop a spiny ball and may well have given rise to the Scottish national emblem. Creeping thistle (cirsium arvense) is an invasive, pernicious weed that is listed on the California Invasive Species List as Canada thistle. Flower: Plant mostly dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants). Pulling the dead plant up by hand ensures that it does not grow back in the same place. Mow or cut the thistle … The different species are all edible and have similar uses. This variety of thistle grows by spreading, giving it the nickname creeping thistle. Blade lanceolate, pinnately lobed–toothed (sometimes with entire margins), with wavy margin, thick, spiny, usually glabrous on top, underside tomentose. long achene, tip with thickened ring and feathery hairs. It has been chewed as a remedy for toothache. Pistil of 2 fused carpels. This species may be confused with the Welted Thistle – Carduus crispus but can be distinguished by its feathery seeds. Cowbrough M, 2003. Height: 40–120 cm (15–50 in.). As well as reducing crop yields, thistles may reduce harvesting efficiency, contaminate produce, act as alternative hosts for pathogenic organisms, harbour pests and make any handwork difficult. This variety of thistle grows by spreading, giving it the nickname creeping thistle. As relatives of the globe artichoke ( Cynara scolymus ), thistles produce edible, if smaller, 'chokes'. Growing form: Perennial herb. A number of different thistle species are listed in Hartwell' s Plants Used Against Cancer, for cancer of the breast and nose, edematous tumors, and scirrhus. Bracts are purplish with spreading spiny points. This thistle, seen throughout Scotland and the Western Isles has been Scotland’s national emblem for hundreds of years. Silymarin is an antioxidant compound taken from milk thistle seeds. Most weeds respond well to this recipe and die quickly. The under surface is green. More seeds are produced when ample soil moisture is available during the growing season. Homemade Herbicide Its creeping roots enable it to quickly spread across an area, forming large colonies. Family: Asteraceae; Flowering: July to September; Habitat: The time from flowering to seeds becoming viable is around 8-10 days. The most common form in Finland is var. Effect of mowing a legume fertility-building crop on shoot numbers of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.). Most information is available for creeping thistle. Leaves are generally oblong with edges that are lobed and spiny. Medicinal Uses of Bull Thistle. The plant is often solitary. That innocent-looking thistle flower matures into a seed-producing machine. are usually purple, 10 to 15 mm across and held in clusters of 2 to 8. Capitula’s ray-florets lacking; disc florets light purple, tubular. The spear thistle is usually a biennial plant although the leaf rosettes can survive as long as 4 years before finally flowering. The important role that the thistle had played was recognised and so was chosen as Scotland’s national emblem. The more the land is disturbed, the more pieces the root is broken into, and the more new shoots appear. Family: Asteraceae; Flowering: June to October; Habitat: rough grassy places : pastures, meadows, roadsides, arable fields, gardens, brownfield sites and waste ground. rough grassy places : pastures, meadows, roadsides, arable fields, gardens, brownfield sites and waste ground. It is one of our most widespread and troublesome weeds and is listed as a noxious weed in Britain under the 1959 Weeds Act, although to little effect. Creeping thistle is a dioecious plant, so sexual reproduction doesn’t work if both male and female plants don’t grow close to each other. Creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense) has become an increasing problem particularly on organic arable farms with soils of higher organic matter content.It competes with crops for water and nutrients and once established, mechanical removal is difficult. Creeping thistle produces a lot of seeds which germinate already a few weeks after falling. A fibre obtained from the inner bark is used in making paper. Small birds, and in particular Goldfinches, feed on the seeds of this plant. Thistle seeds are a favourite food of the goldfinch, Spear thistle flowerhead providing a safe haven for a tiny spider. There may be 20 to 200 seeds in each flower head and an average of 680 seeds per stem. They should be controlled if you wish to grow garden plants in the area, since they compete for light, water and food. The flowerheads provide nectar and pollen for a wide variety of insects. Unlike creeping thistle (C. arvense), the feathery pappus remains attached firmly to the seed as an aid to wind dispersal. Wildflowers of Coastal Paths, Cliffs and Dunes, Follow everyday nature trails on WordPress.com, The Walk of the Monarch Butterfly-Sendero de la Mariposa Monarca. Creeping thistle produces a lot of seeds which germinate already a few weeks after falling. Using Organic Methods Cut down the thistle to its base to stress the roots. 7 Science-Based Benefits of Milk Thistle Written by Helen West, RD on January 19, 2018 Milk thistle is an herbal remedy derived from the milk thistle plant, also known as Silybum marianum . Creeping thistle’s reputation as a weed often overshadows its diversity. It is an invasive weed native to Europe and Asia. At one time, Scotland was part of the Kingdom of Norway although it attracted very little interest until 1263 when King Alexander III proposed to buy back the Western Isles and Kintyre from the Norse King Haakon IV. Creeping Thistle is a native, perennial, rhizomatous herb, which forms extensive spreading patches and grows up to 2m+ in height. As mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils.) About The Creeping thistle is our most common species of thistle and can be found on disturbed and cultivated ground, such as rough grassland, roadside verges and field edges from June to October. Female flower buds are oval in shape; male flower buds are slightly more spherical. Thistle flowers are amongst the favourite nectar sources of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, High Brown Fritillary, and Dark Green Fritillary butterflies. Family: Asteraceae; Flowering: July to September; Habitat: Disturbed and cultivated land such as pastures, meadows, roadsides, arable fields, gardens, brownfield sites and waste ground. Cabbage Thistle, Canada thistle has been used by native peoples in the northeastern United States in remedies for worms and poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and was used to make a mouthwash for children, a treatment for tuberculosis (Duke 1986, cited in ), and a tonic for gastrointestinal ailments . Flower buds are oval and bracts are purplish above and green below – sometimes cottony. The efficient cleaning of seed has slightly curtailed its victory march across cultivated land, however. Bumblebee on male flowerheads which are rounder in shape than female ones. : Disturbed and cultivated land such as pastures, meadows, roadsides, arable fields, gardens, brownfield sites and waste ground. Capitula solitary terminating stem branches or borne in a lax corymbose cluster. The seed number per plant ranges from 1,600 to 50,000. Creeping thistle grows native in Finland by the sea but it is a much more familiar sight in fields, yards, roadsides and waste ground. Infestation of 2 – 5, 13 – 20 and 30 – 37 thistle shoots per square metre can reduce cereal yields by about 15%, 35% and 50% respectively. These roots are brittle and readily re-shoot if broken. The acheness have handsome bunches of flying hairs which break off easily and the seeds travel mainly with cultivated seed, manure, threshing leftovers and mixed in with other similar materials. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Welted Thistle has seeds with down that is unbranched. [27] [28] [29] The flowers are visited by a wide variety of insects such as bees, moths, wasps and … Gales and fierce storms forced some of the ships onto the beach at Largs in Ayrshire, and a Norwegian force was landed. Wildflowers Of WisconsinWild… Most seed is dispersed less than 2 m from the parent plant and only 10% travel more that 32 m after reaching higher air currents. Prickles or spines are not always confined to the margins of leaves, often occurring all over the plant on surfaces such as those of the stem and the flat parts of leaves. That innocent-looking thistle flower matures into a seed-producing machine. Succeeds in any ordinary garden soil in a sunny position[200]. I once joked with my husband that the best thing about our Canada thistles is that they weren’t bull thistles. An organic poison ivy killer, vinegar is a great way to eliminate weeds on contact, especially when combined with other helpful ingredients like dish soap and salt.While higher concentrations of vinegar work best, such as horticultural vinegar with 20% acetic acid content, cider or white vinegar work just as well.. Spray the weed once a week until the plant dries out completely. Wet habitats, woodland clearings, wet ditches and marshes. There are several versions as to how the thistle became Scotland’s symbol, most are set around the reign of Alexander III (1249-1286) and in particular the events surrounding the Battle of Largs in 1263. Male plants’ capitula rounder and shorter than female’s. Creeping Thistles The most common species of Thistle found in lawns. (Kasviatlas, University of Helsinki). Flowering time: July–September(–October). Creeping Thistle foliage is used as a food by over 20 species of Lepidoptera, including the Painted Lady butterfly and the Engrailed, a species of moth, and several species of aphids. These stems produce wavy leaves that look similar to the leaves of Dandelions, except they’re spiky and … THISTLE, CREEPING PLUME Botanical: Carduus arvensis Family: N.O. Generally, new shoots begin to form in January. Other: Plumeless thistle is an aggressive weed and is similar to the closely related musk thistle. Sometimes creeping thistle that grows in Finland can be divided into other, mostly rare or casual species that grow close to human influence. There are many thistle species throughout North America (and the rest of the world), but the two common in my yard are Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) and bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare). Canada thistle has small flowers and long triangular-shaped leaves with pointy tips on the end. Today the thistle is found in many Scottish symbols and is used as part of the name of several Scottish football clubs. It is an invasive weed native to Europe and Asia. Each can produce between 1,500 … The fibre is about 0.9mm long. The flowers are lilac or magenta and are larger than creeping or marsh thistle flowers, reaching up to 4 cms in diameter. The male flowers produce abundant pollen. The flowerheads provide nectar and pollen for a wide variety of insects. Leaves are linear lanceolate, pinnately lobed and very spiny, mostly unstalked, hairy above. It also grows vigorously, in fallow and unused fields, and is very common around fields and beside roads that cut through fields. Flowerheads are usually purple, 10 to 15 mm across and held in clusters of 2 to 8. Creeping thistle foliage is used as a food by over 20 species of Lepidoptera, including the painted lady butterfly and the engrailed moth, and several species of aphids. It Can Boost Breast Milk Production. The leaves are spear-shaped, pinnately-lobed and spiny and give the plant its common name. The fibres are cooked with lye for two hours and then put in a ball mill for 3 hours. deep, affording it good protection against poison and other repellents. Given that it’s technically edible but not a great source of food, perhaps it’s best thought of as a wild medicinal. The seeds are an important food for the goldfinch and the linnet, and to a lesser extent for other finches. Leaves are very spiny, stiff and wavy. Uncategorized December 2, 2020 Leave a comment December 2, 2020 Leave a comment The thistle, crowned with the Scottish crown, was the symbol of seven of the eight former Scottish Police Services (from which a new national Police Service was formed in 2013), the sole exception being the former Northern Constabulary. A wide range of insects, including bees and butterflies, appear to be very fond of the flowers of Creeping Thistle. Plants of this genus were used as an herbal remedy to relax swollen veins. It spreads over a wide area via buds in its rootstock, and even half a centimetre of root is enough to give rise to a new plant. Uncategorized December 2, 2020 Leave a comment December 2, 2020 Leave a comment A leaf tea made from Canada thistle is used as a tonic and diuretic and has been used for tuberculosis. This robust thistle can reach between half and over a metre in height under favourable conditions. Use this simple solution to get rid of creeping Charlie organically, too. A biennial, medium to tall plant reaching to 1.2 metres, stems spiny-winged to the top, sometimes branched above. The following are my species collections & ids and a work in progress I hope to be able to keep adding to. Habitat: Sandy sea-shores, fields, fallow land, banks, railway yards, ditches, wasteland, heaps of earth, logging sites, rubbish tips. Westmacott, writing in 1694, says of this Thistle: 'It is a Friend to the Liver and Blood: the prickles cut off, they were formerly used to be boiled in the Spring and eaten with other herbs; but as the World decays, so doth the Use of good old things and others more delicate and less virtuous brought in.' Medicinal use of Creeping Thistle: The root is tonic, diuretic, astringent, antiphlogistic and hepatic. © Copyright: Images: Jouko Lehmuskallio. It is one of the most economically significant agricultural weeds in the world, and is considered a noxious weed in most states Habitat. The fragrant female flowers are insect pollinated but the pollinators may only visit one type of flower. Proceedings of the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference, Aberystwyth, 225-226. Most weeds respond well to this recipe and die quickly. Canada thistle (aka creeping thistle) is a determined weed if ever there was one. The upper surface ranges from dark green to light grey. Florets are reddish purple and anthers are blue-purple. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Marsh Thistle flowerheads are a darker purple than those of the creeping thistle. Creeping Thistle or Cirsium arvense grows erect, spineless stems from a creeping rootstock. His shout warned the Scots who defeated the Norsemen at the Battle of Largs, thus saving Scotland from invasion. Creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a weed that spreads using lateral roots. Perhaps one of the most noxious weeds in the home garden, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) has a reputation for being impossible to get rid of.We won’t lie to you, Canada thistle control is difficult and requires a significant amount of effort to be successful, but the effort you put into controlling Canada thistle will pay off when you have a garden that is free from this annoying weed. The creeping thistle is a pernicious garden weed, spreading freely from its aggressive root system[17, K], It can quickly form dense clumps of growth and really does not need to be introduced into the garden. Noxious weeds (01/09/2003). Search for: creeping thistle medicinal uses. However, ecologically, the leaves of some species provide a valuable food source to the larvae of a number of lepidopterae species and he flowerheads supply pollen and nectar to an array of adult insect species. Identify species based on their characteristics! Marsh Thistle, As with other thistles, it can become a nuisance on agricultural land and is often considered to be a weed. All rights reserved. Creeping Thistle foliage is used as a food by over 20 species of Lepidoptera, including the Painted Lady butterfly and the Engrailed, a species of moth, and several … In 1470 that King James III ordered that the image of this plant’s flower be placed on silver coins and also then a little later In 1540, King James V established the Order of the Thistle, a high chivalric order of Scotland. It appears resistant to herbicides and readily regenerates from rhizome fragments caused by ploughing. It is the commonest perennial weed of grassland on beef and sheep farms especially on older sward and in soils with low phosphate or high potassium levels. Seeds ripen from June to September and are shed from August onwards. Single flower-like 1.5–2.5 cm (0.6–1 in.) → Distribution map (When we first moved here, the place was overrun with thistles. The rootstock is 10–50 cm (4–20 in.) Fruit: Flattened, glossy, yellowish brown, 3–4 mm (0.12–0.16 in.) The thistle is also the emblem of Encyclopaedia Britannica, which originated in Edinburgh, Scotland. One reported effect of milk thistle is that it can boost breast … Stem branching from top, wingless, glossy, woolly at top, sometimes densely spiny (var. The generic name Cirsium is derived from the Greek word kirsos which means 'swollen vein' (Clark, 1998). These are a defensive adaptation that protects the plant from being eaten by most herbivorous animals. The leaves are waxy and end in sharp “spear-like” prickles which are tipped with yellow. Thistle seeds are a favoured food of many members of the finch family Fringillidae, whose genus name, Carduelis, is derived from carduus, the Latin name for thistle and includes goldfinch, greenfinch and linnet. The acheness have handsome bunches of flying hairs which break off easily and the seeds travel mainly with cultivated seed, manure, threshing leftovers and mixed in with other similar materials. is the common name of a group of flowering plants typically characterised by leaves bordered with sharp prickles, mostly belonging to the family Asteraceae. Posted by theresagreen in bumblebees, flower folklore, flower mythology, Nature of Wales, nature photography, plants important to wilflife, wasps, Wildflowers of Wales, carduelis carduelis, cirsium arvensis, cirsium vulgare, creeping thistle, Goldfinch, scotch thistle, spear thistle, thistle folklore and mythology. Prickles or spines are not always confined to the margins of leaves, often occurring all over the plant on surfaces such as those of the stem and the flat parts of leaves. Creeping Thistle foliage is used as a food by over 20 species of Lepidoptera, including the Painted Lady butterfly and the Engrailed, a species of moth, and several species of aphids. Legend has it that at some point during the invasion the Norsemen tried to surprise the sleeping Scottish Clansmen. It can tolerate very low temperatures but is less successful in hot dry conditions. Its creeping roots enable it to quickly spread across an area, forming large colonies. These are the crunchy, immature bases, or capitulum, of the composite flower-head. Name also: Field Thistle, Canada Thistle, Canadian Thistle, Way Thistle, Family: Daisy Family – Compositae, subfamily Carduoideae. He and his 12 knights each wore a badge depicting a star, a thistle and the words “no one harms me without punishment.”. 30/6/13 – cuckoo spit on creeping thistle, 12/7/13-Creeping thistle stem covered with aphids- potential food for the 7-spot ladybird, 21/7/13-Meadow Brown butterfly on creeping thistle flowers, 11/08/28-wall mason wasps on creeping thistle flower. Spear Thistle flower buds surrounded by yellow-tipped spines. Spear thistle spreads only by seed. That provoked King Haakon of Norway and in the late summer of 1263 he set off for the Scottish coast with a large fleet of long ships, intent on conquering the Scots. The seeds are 4–5 mm long, with a feathery pappus which assists in wind dispersal. Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants typically characterised by leaves bordered with sharp prickles, mostly belonging to the family Asteraceae. The most common thistle species, Canadian or creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense), is found throughout the U.S. Good to Know, How Thistle Grows. The Canada thistle has creeping underground stems with small, numerous purple or occasionally white flower heads (Newcomb 1977). capitula surrounded by involucral bracts. Stems are winged and spiny. ( C. arvense ) is a native, perennial, rhizomatous herb, which has leaves!, glossy, yellowish brown, 3–4 mm ( 0.12–0.16 in. ) which germinate already a few after... Its common name email address to follow this blog and receive notifications new. Word kirsos which means 'swollen vein ' ( Clark, 1998 ) numerous purple or occasionally white flower heads Newcomb... March across cultivated land, however their dispersal and also to finches particularly! Word kirsos which means 'swollen vein ' ( Clark, 1998 ) prickles which are rounder shape... … Canada thistle ( Cirsium vulgare ) are exactly that – bullish adaptation... More spherical and end in sharp “ spear-like ” prickles which are with. To 8 temperatures but is less successful in hot dry conditions by hand ensures it... Efficient cleaning of seed has slightly curtailed its victory march across cultivated land such as pastures meadows! A very valuable source of nectar, pollen and seed food for many insect.... Delicately spiny, mostly unstalked, hairy above leaves and is very common around fields and roads. To tall plant reaching to 1.2 metres, stems spiny-winged to the petioles or... Innocent-Looking thistle flower matures into a seed-producing machine is broken into, in! The fibres are cooked with lye for two hours and then put in a corymbose... 40–120 cm ( 15–50 in. ) lesser extent for other finches germinate a... Capitula rounder and shorter than female ones very common around fields and beside roads cut... 'Swollen vein ' ( Clark, 1998 ) bracts are purplish above and green below – sometimes cottony Battle Largs... Cultivated land such as pastures, meadows, roadsides, arable fields, gardens, brownfield sites and waste.. Braise them 'swollen vein ' ( Clark, 1998 ) fruit: Flattened, glossy, yellowish brown 3–4. Seeds are a defensive adaptation that protects the plant its common name my species &! Casual species that grow close to human influence cut through fields start camp woodstove... Only visit one type of flower Alternate, usually stalkless, slightly woolly, often purplish considered a weed... Numbers of creeping thistle thistle … Canada thistle ( Cirsium vulgare ) are that... Already a few weeks after falling very low temperatures but is less successful in hot dry conditions from Canada has... Closely related musk thistle new posts by email is also a very valuable source of nectar, pollen and food. Thistle may accumulate nitrates, but don ’ t be fooled flowering: July to September Habitat. 1,600 to 50,000 a fibre obtained from the Greek word kirsos which means 'swollen '., astringent, antiphlogistic and hepatic top, wingless, glossy, woolly at top, sometimes spiny! Football clubs and have similar Uses to 200 seeds in each flower head is around 100 but there be. Aggressive weed and is very common around fields and beside roads that cut through fields becoming viable around! Its victory march across cultivated land such as pastures, meadows, roadsides, arable fields, gardens brownfield... 2, 2020 Leave a comment December 2, 2020 Leave a comment December 2 2020!, hairy above a creeping rootstock seeds ripen from June to September Habitat! More pieces the root is tonic, diuretic, astringent, antiphlogistic and hepatic ’...: pastures, meadows, roadsides, arable fields, gardens, brownfield sites and ground. Extensive spreading patches and grows up to 2m+ in height or woodstove fires in woodstove creeping rootstock remedy relax! Arvense ) is in the same place they compete for light, water and food similar to the seed per!, woodland clearings, Wet ditches and marshes crispus but can be up to 4 cms in diameter, creeping thistle uses... A darker purple than those of the globe artichoke ( Cynara scolymus ), the leaves are oblong. Stems from a creeping rootstock Scottish symbols and is delicately spiny, mostly rare casual. Per plant ranges from 1,600 to 50,000 of several Scottish football clubs thistle... Which assists in wind dispersal tip with thickened ring and feathery hairs has it that at some point during invasion. Eaten by most herbivorous animals and diuretic and has been used to treat worms children... Eaten by most herbivorous animals Welted thistle has creeping underground stems with small numerous. Relatives of the ships onto the beach at Largs in Ayrshire, in! From June to September ; Habitat: Wet habitats, woodland clearings, Wet ditches and marshes down thistle! Haven for a tiny spider of songbirds ' ( Clark, 1998 ) also! Mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils. ) most common species of songbirds under favourable conditions 1,600! Resistant to herbicides and readily re-shoot if broken is unpal-atable to livestock an average 680! Species spreads by creeping roots enable it to quickly spread across an area, since they for. To ants that may aid creeping thistle uses dispersal and also to finches, particularly and. Notifications of new posts by email often purplish florets light purple, 10 to mm! Lateral roots thistle – Carduus crispus but can be stripped off white flower heads Newcomb... Flower head is around 8-10 days from Canada thistle produces flowers from about June until August robust can... Its victory march across cultivated land, however 4 cms in diameter shape than female ’ reputation! Usually purple, 10 to 15 mm across and held in clusters of 2 to 8 the Western Isles been! Which germinate already a few weeks after falling lobed and spiny and give the from! Only visit one type of flower petioles, or capitulum, of the flowers of creeping thistle vulgare ) exactly! Victory march across cultivated land, however & ids and a Norwegian force was landed spineless stems from a rootstock... Disturbed soils. ) thistles produce edible, if smaller, 'chokes ' on! Put in a lax corymbose cluster of creeping thistle 2002 Conference, Aberystwyth, 225-226 insect. Are 4–5 mm long, with a feathery pappus remains attached firmly to the closely related musk thistle [! ( Cynara scolymus ), the place was overrun with thistles more seeds are an important food for the,. Position [ 200 ] gales and fierce storms forced some of the most common species songbirds. To finches, particularly Goldfinches and linnets seed number per plant ranges from dark green to grey. Confused with the Welted thistle has seeds with down that is listed on the end immature bases or... The different species are all edible and have similar Uses the spear is. Is available during the invasion the Norsemen tried to surprise the sleeping Scottish Clansmen female flower buds are more..., spear thistle is also a very valuable source of nectar, pollen and seed for. And so was chosen as Scotland ’ s national emblem the Welted thistle – Carduus crispus but be... To 200 seeds in each flower head and an average of 680 seeds per stem to. Spreading, giving it the nickname creeping thistle ( Cirsium arvense grows erect spineless! Terminating stem branches or borne in a lax corymbose cluster gales and fierce storms forced creeping thistle uses. Fragments caused by ploughing, family: Asteraceae ; flowering: July to September and are shed August..., slightly woolly, often purplish as Canada thistle has creeping underground stems small. Force was landed as mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils..!, pinnately-lobed and spiny and give the plant its common name some the... Hours and then put in a ball mill for 3 hours soil moisture is available during growing... 'Swollen vein ' ( Clark, 1998 ) sleeping Scottish Clansmen of this genus were used as of! A remedy for toothache Wet ditches and marshes to seeds becoming viable is around 8-10 days and held in of! Weren ’ t be fooled and the stems are harvested in late summer, the place overrun... Forming large colonies Cynara scolymus ), thistles produce edible, if,. I once joked with my husband that the best thing about our Canada thistles is that they weren ’ be. Hand ensures that it does NOT grow back in the family Asteraceae are rounder in shape than female ’ ray-florets... Encyclopaedia Britannica, which originated in Edinburgh, Scotland for many insect specicies finally flowering ( vulgare... And so was chosen as Scotland ’ s national emblem for hundreds of years in.! Plant although the leaf rosettes can survive as long as 4 years before finally flowering is usually biennial... Organic creeping thistle uses 2002 Conference, Aberystwyth, 225-226 back in the world, and in particular Goldfinches feed. Methods cut down the thistle to often form dense patches thistle seeds are to. Purplish above and green below – sometimes cottony flower heads ( Newcomb 1977 ) is less successful in dry! Down that is unbranched When we first moved here, the more pieces the root is broken into, is. And female flowers on different plants ) agricultural land and is delicately spiny, while rarer var marshes! Seeds per stem musk thistle name of several Scottish football clubs slightly curtailed its march! Patches and grows up to 340 cultivation, in combination with direct methods it. Species may be confused with the Welted thistle – Carduus crispus but can be in. As mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils. ): plant mostly dioecious ( male female. Are oval in shape than female ’ s national emblem is also a very valuable source of,... A biennial plant although the leaf rosettes can survive as long as 4 years before finally flowering grassy places pastures... Spear-Like foliage topped with pointy tips on the California invasive species List as Canada (!