Thimothy and Orchard Grass for cow hay - posted in Alfalfa/Hay: I live in central Nebraska, have been farming/ranching for more than 40 years. Smooth Brome. Wide leaves with sparse hairs and very erect panicle branches. is a cool season grass that forms a dense sod by spreading rhizomes. In northern parts of the U.S., timothy is widely grown because it tolerates cold weather and grows early in spring. Season production of warm-season grasses is comparable to that of cool-season grasses. If your goats don’t graze aggressively, it can grow about 30 inches tall. This forage should not have any "unmanageable " flaws. However, optimal germination occurs when seed are buried to 1cm depth. When cut at or past the dough stage, brome hay often is not adequate to meet the energy requirements of a mature beef cow. They know that to get the best meat, you have to have good grass. Surely no decision about a species can be made unless there is a clear definition of what "good" is. Protein content declines to 8 percent in late August, a level that is adequate for maintai… For this discussion a "good" forage is one that is high in nutritive quality, is persistent, and supplies, these nutrients cheaply. I was thinking of drilling brome or orchard grass … Bermuda grass is also made easily into hay for winter grazing, making it a popular crop for year-round production. These locations tend to be where pasture availability is limited. Bermuda is typically the cheapest grass hay you can purchase for a horse. Some seeds on the soil surface can remain viable for 2-3 years, but little dormancy was found in great brome grass in the southern areas of Western Australia. This research study examined feeding ethanol co-products mixed with low-quality forage to cow-calf pairs on smooth brome pasture to replace grazed forage. Multiple cohorts of brome grass makes it difficult to target all brome grass plants with in-crop herbicides. Latin name - Bromus diandrus and B. rigidus. Great brome grass seeds are produced at the end of the winter annual cropping season, and have an initial period of dormancy (after-ripening) over the summer fallow. and Ohlenbusch, P.D. Over the last 10 years, brome grass has increased in importance to a greater extent that any other weed species in Australia. because both possess hairs on the leaves and stems. In spite of the fact that smooth bromegrass has invaded several native grass pastures and rangeland in Central South Dakota, with some effective grazing management strategies, ranch managers can turn smooth bromegrass into a valuable asset to the ranch. These varieties start growing earlier in the spring and stay green longer than "common" bromegrass. I need a lot of cow and feeder cattle hay. I currently use alfalfa, cane, corn silage, and Wet Distillers Grain for feed. Timothy grass is a good alternative of alfalfa. because both possess hairs on the leaves and stems. Short on pasture? Bromus stamineus (grazing brome) Two similar perennial spp. The second treatment was double the recommended stocking rate at 7.63 animal unit month equivalents of forage demand per acre. There was no statistical difference in cow and calf body weight between the two treatments at the end of the grazing season, although there was a tendency for cows and calves receiving the feed mix to weigh more than cows and calves that were only grazing smooth brome pastures. Most of the time in this region, sweet clover is a part of a diversity of grasses, sedges, legumes and forbs on rangeland or pasture and doesn’t result in bloat. In a national ranking of crop weeds, brome grass is number four, after annual ryegrass, wild radish and wild oats. Brome grass is widespread throughout the cropping regions of southern Australia. A mixture of modified distillers grains with solubles and ground cornstalks was provided daily and fed at a rate designed to replace approximately 50% of the grazed forage, thus allowing for the doubling of the recommended stocking rate. Digestibility of smooth brome declines rapidly after heading. Grass is surprisingly complex. Swathing may be necessary to retain great brome grass seed for harvest weed seed destruction. Advantages: • High Forage Quality • Good Yield ~ 5 T/Acre Disadvantages: • Aggressive • Moisture Requirement (minimum of 18” annually) Smooth Brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) The jagged ligule is one to three mm (1/8 to 1/4 in.) Baylor, like Saratoga, is a high-yielding and persistent variety in Pennsylvania. The hairs on the leaf blade point upwards. Good palatable grass hay, cut while still green and growing, can be very adequate. By the end of summer seeds have lost dormancy and most germinate with the autumn break. The first treatment consisted of cow-calf pairs that were stocked to graze an estimated 3.82 animal unit month equivalents of forage per acre during the grazing season without any substitution feed provided. The pastures in this study received the same treatments for four consecutive years and little difference was observed visually in condition or residual forage at the end of the grazing season each year between treatments. Persistence of great brome or rigid brome grass could be prolonged on non-wetting soils, with up to 30% of the seedbank persisting from one season to the next. Primarily composed of annual grasses that need replanting each year. Drilling ensures uniform seed distribution, accurate seeding rates, and uniform depth of coverage. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884. As a result, great brome grass is less of a problem in northern Queensland. More than 70 percent of this tonnage was produced after June 15. This annual grass is difficult to control, but that didn't stop Michael Cent, local landowner and pharmacist, from trying. A density of 0, 102, 166 and 305 seedlings/m2 resulted in a wheat yield of 2.88, 2.65, 2.74 and 2.48t/ha, in Wongan Hills, WA in 2016. Seedlings can emerge from seeds buried up to 15cm deep, although the rate of establishment is reduced. Forage yield and quality; beef cattle weight gain; and sainfoin and alfalfa persistence in mixtures with Russian wild ryegrass and hybrid brome will be evaluated starting in 2015; results will be available by 2018. References: Lamond, R.E. To decide if one should replace the forage that you have with something else, a good question to ask is can the new forage do the job and do it cheaper than what I presently have. Smooth bromegrass was widely used in the upper half of North America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with distinguishable northern and southern varieties. Funding for this project is through the Saskatchewan Agriculture Development Fund. Yields of 3.8 tons per acre have been recorded on a pure Indian grass stand at Elsberry, Mo. However, seed germination resumes upon release from innate dormancy and placement in complete darkness caused by tillage or sowing operations. Smooth Brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) Great brome grass can produce 60-3000 seeds per plant (over 30000 seeds/m2). Common bromegrass is not a variety but a bromegrass of uncertain genetic makeup. The inflorescence is loose and nodding and spikelet branches are longer than the spikelets. Double Barrel Brome Grass and Double Barrel Orchardgrass - Both are cool-season grasses suitable for making hay. Reed canarygrass is the first grass my cattle munch on and they love it. As ruminants, cattle can adapt to grazing forage with high bloat potential over a period of several days. Broadcasting brome on the surface with shallow incorporation can result in good stands of brome. These diseases include: ergot (Claviceps purpurea), take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis), powdery mildew (E. rysiphe graminis), septoria glume blotch (Leptosphaeria nodorum), black stem rust (Puccinia graminis), brown rust (Puccinia recondita), barley net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia solani), bunt (Tilletia caries), cereal yellow dwarf virus, cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenai) and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.). Great brome grass is one of the most competitive grass weeds in cereal crops. It is winter hardy, drought and heat tolerant. Brome grass does well in arid climates and marginal soil conditions. Left uncontrolled in fallow or pasture phases, brome grass will act as a green bridge to cereal diseases. Farmers and ranchers often tell me their prairie hay or cane hay or other grass hay looks really good but when a lab tested it the relative feed value, also called RFV, was surprisingly low. Great brome grass may retain 35-75% of the seed at crop maturity. Argentine Bahia was introduced in Florida in the early 1940’s to provide pasturage for the early cattle ranches in the mid to southern portions of Florida. Pairs were group-fed once a day in metal bunks that provided three feet of bunk space per pair. Brome grass seed, with the best brome seed varieties, is produced by our seed company. 25% of growers nationally now cite brome grass as their most costly weed to control. Grass – but the answer isn’t really that simple. This study occurred over a three year period at the Agricultural Research and Development Center located near Mead, Nebraska from 2011 – 2013. Saratoga, a variety recommended for many years in Pennsylvania, is a vigorous, high-yielding, and persistent variety adapted to well-drained soils. Rigid brome grass germination appears to be strongly inhibited by exposure to light. Germination of great brome grass is more rapid and uniform when the seeds are under crop residue (as in a no tillage system) compared to bare soil. Foxtail (Hordeum murinum) is a pest plant that can dominate pastures on the Central Coast.It's not particularly good forage for livestock and the seed heads often get stuck in eyes, ears, and noses of livestock and pets. If grasses and legumes don't make a good recovery, you're headed for a midsummer pasture slump. At the seedling stage brome grass may be confused with wild oats (Avena spp.) Both species will germinate at the break of season, but further cohorts will emerge in late autumn and winter. It has a much slower release from dormancy than great brome grass. Supplemented pairs were provided on average 15.7 pounds on a dry matter basis of the feed mix per day. Unlike protein and digestibility, fiber concentrations of smooth brome increase with advancing maturity. However, at least two years of seed set control will deplete the weed seed bank. There are usually prominent purple stripes on the leaf sheath. Research study was conducted by Jason M. Warner, Annie J. Doerr, Galen E. Erickson, Rick J. Rasby, and Terry J. Klopfenstein. Locations in Nebraska where smooth brome dominated pastures are the primary resource for summer grazing is also where there is often readily available harvested cornstalk residue and ethanol co-products. Posted 18 January 2014 - 06:22 PM Brome is a cool season invader here that produces a good first cutting but will not produce significantly in following cuttings. It is lower in protein than some other grasses, so you must ensure a horse is getting enough protein in their diet if this is their only forage. As shown in other studies, feeding only highly digestible ethanol co-products would likely not have resulted in the same "grass saving" effect. Over the last 10 years, brome grass has increased in importance to a greater extent that any other weed species in Australia. For best results, smooth brome should be seeded ¼ to ½ inch deep. In Australia, there are brome grass populations that have developed resistance to: Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development's Agriculture and Food division is committed to growing and protecting WA's agriculture and food sector. Increasing levels of this feed mix were fed throughout the grazing season to account for declining forage quality/quantity, as well as the increasing consumption by the calf. However, seed of some populations have developed a requirement for chilling prior to germination. it produces much more seed talk than orchard grass. Compared to wheat, brome grass is more tolerant to drought and phosphorus deficiency and is more responsive to nitrogen. B. diandrus is commonly called great brome but may also be known as ripgut brome, ripgut grass, giant brome, slands grass, jabbers, Kingston grass and brome grass. This was estimated to reduce their intake of grazed forage by approximately 37%. Stems: Annual bromes grow until the stems are erect and slender. (This is the recommended stocking rate for this location.) It is a sweet smelling, highly energy and fiber enriched grass, but lower in protein. The Legacy. Brome grass seeds contaminate grain and wool, and cause injury to livestock (by entering the eyes, mouth, feet and intestines). This management practice provides the opportunity to increase the number of cow-calf pairs that can be placed in a smooth brome pasture for the summer grazing season by replacing a portion of grazed forage with fed feed. When most people from the suburbs or city look at grass, they say it looks good if it’s green and mowed. Bahia grass is one of the main warm season pasture grasses in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world and has long served as a major grass in the cattle growing industry especially of the pampas of South America. Bromegrass is a long-stemmed grass used most often in commercial situations. Summarized by Aaron Berger, Nebraska Extension Educator University of Nebraska–Lincoln, back to Forages, Pasture, and Range Management. There are some loose correlations between bermuda grass hay and colic. Both species have erect seedlings with dull, hairy leaves that display red-purple stripes following the leaf veins. From what I have read timothy is a cool season grass, same as alfalfa (bad choice). I need a lot of cow and feeder cattle hay is loose and nodding and spikelet branches longer. Was thinking of drilling brome or orchard grass … Short on pasture and,... 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